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Name[ edit ] The Karankawa name's origins are disputed. Karankawa was theorized to originate from related peoples living nearby who called the dog the term "klam" or "glam", and to love, to like, to be fond of, "kawa.
Meanwhile, the Tonkawa called them Wrestlers "Keles" or "Killis"due to the Karankawas' skill in the art.
They alternatively called them the barefooted or those without moccasins "Yakokon kapa-i"but this name was also applied to other groups with which the Tonkawe were acquainted. The Lipan-Apache called the Karankawa the people who walk in the water "Nda kun dadehe"possibly referring to their mode of fishing and catching turtles.
Notably, the Karankawa called themselves "Karankawa" as well.
Linguistic data suggests that the Karankawa name originated from the old Spanish Main, "Kalina," and a suffix from a Northern Carib tribe, "kxura,"meaning "people;" a compound emerges: Karinxkxura, meaning "Carib people.
The Carib subgroup to which the Karankawa people belong remains to be discovered. Their exact migratory path northward is equally indistinct.
Migration northward is theorized to have occurred in the late fifteenth century. The route north was from the original land north of the Amazon river toward Tamaulipas and Texas, and was probably finished over a long period of time in short bursts of migration.
This is partially based on the similarity of their physical appearance to Caribbean Natives. However, no ethnographic or archaeological evidence has been found to support this speculation. They travelled in groups of thirty to forty people and remained in each place about four weeks.
After European contact, canoes were of two kinds, both being called "awa'n": Neither were used for fishing but for transportation only, and their travels were limited to the waters close to the land. The women, children, and possessions travelled in the hold while the men stood on the stern and poled the canoe.
Upon landing at their next destination, the women set up wigwams called ba'ak in their native language and the men hauled the boats on the shore.
Their campsites were always close to the shoreline of the nearby body of water. This wickerwork was fastened with deerskin. Upon this framework, the Karankawa lay deer, wildcat, panther or bear skins, again fastened with deerskin thongs.
After European contact, the Karankawa begged for matches or tinderboxes from settlers; otherwise, they resorted to the traditional method of using their firesticks, which they always carried in a package of deerthongs. The fire was always made in the center of their dwellings and kept burning day and night.
They used animal skins to sit and sleep on within their dwellings. Their household goods and utensils included wooden spoons, some clay vessels, fishbone needles, and fine deer sinew. They supplemented their hunting with gathering food such as berries, persimmons, wild grapes, sea-bird eggs, and nuts.
Although there were a lot of salt deposits nearby, the Karankawa used chile for seasoning their food. After European contact, the Karankawa also would mix flour with water, lay the dough upon a flat stone and baked it on the open fire. They were fond of sweet coffee. Syllabic structure was vocalic, they doubled consonants and vowels, and often extended sentences beyond the supply of breath which they could command.
They often abbreviated their words and spoke softly.
The Karankawa could make the smoke of a small fire ascend toward the sky in many different ways, and it was as intelligible to them across long distances as their language. Their methods are unknown. They carefully repressed their breath while speaking; at the end of their sentences, they exhaled heavily, releasing the air they held back during speaking.
Moreover, their expression was interpreted by Europeans as impassive, especially because they never looked at the person to whom they were speaking. Their pronunciation was very exact, and they ridiculed poor elocution by the whites who tried to learn their language.
The Europeans described their general demeanor as surly and fatigued. They also ate and drank at all times of the day.In , one of two barges put together by survivors of the failed Pánfilo de Narváez expedition to Florida struck aground at Galveston Island. Survivors, including Cabeza de Vaca, were cared for by the Capoque band of Karankawa.
From , Cabeza de Vaca subsisted for seven years among the coastal tribes, making a living as a medical practitioner and occasional trader.
Francisco Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Cáceres, Spain (then in the Crown of Castile) in modern-day Extremadura, benjaminpohle.com was the illegitimate son of infantry colonel Gonzalo Pizarro (–) and Francisca González, a woman of poor means.
McDougal Littell. AUDIO LIBRARY. This CD collection is available for checkout: AC M Grade 11 Audio CD Contents. Explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca spent eight years in the Gulf region of present-day Texas and was treasurer to the Spanish expedition under de Narváez.
Explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de. McDougal Littell. AUDIO LIBRARY. This CD collection is available for checkout: AC M Grade 11 Audio CD Contents. Alvar Núñez cabeza de Vaca was a Spanish explorer of the New World, one of four survivors of the Narváez expedition. During eight years of traveling across the US Southwest, he became a trader and shaman to various Native American tribes before reconnecting with Spanish colonial forces in .