A blockage of a bile duct by a gallstone usually or tumor A toxic reaction to a drug or medicinal herb Hepatitis Hepatitis damages the liver, making it less able to move bilirubin into the bile ducts. Hepatitis may be acute short-lived or chronic lasting at least 6 months.
Sickle cell anemia Sickle cell anemia Normal red blood cells are round. In sickle cell anemia, some red blood cells become deformed, so they look like sickles used to cut wheat. These unusually shaped cells give the disease its name.
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels.
In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body.
There's no cure for most people with sickle cell anemia. But treatments can relieve pain and help prevent problems associated with the disease. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia, which vary from person to person and change over time, include: Sickle cells break apart easily and die, leaving you without enough red blood cells.
Red blood cells usually live for about days before they need to be replaced. But sickle cells usually die in 10 to 20 days, leaving a shortage of red blood cells anemia. Without enough red blood cells, your body can't get the oxygen it needs to feel energized, causing fatigue.
Periodic episodes of pain, called crises, are a major symptom of sickle cell anemia. Pain develops when sickle-shaped red blood cells block blood flow through tiny blood vessels to your chest, abdomen and joints.
Pain can also occur in your bones. The pain varies in intensity and can last for a few hours to a few weeks. Some people have only a few pain episodes.
Others have a dozen or more crises a year. If a crisis is severe enough, you might need to be hospitalized. Some adolescents and adults with sickle cell anemia also have chronic pain, which can result from bone and joint damage, ulcers and other causes. Painful swelling of hands and feet. The swelling is caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells blocking blood flow to the hands and feet.
Sickle cells can damage an organ that fights infection spleenleaving you more vulnerable to infections. Doctors commonly give infants and children with sickle cell anemia vaccinations and antibiotics to prevent potentially life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia.
Red blood cells provide your body with the oxygen and nutrients you need for growth. A shortage of healthy red blood cells can slow growth in infants and children and delay puberty in teenagers. Tiny blood vessels that supply your eyes may become plugged with sickle cells.
This can damage the retina — the portion of the eye that processes visual images, leading to vision problems. When to see a doctor Although sickle cell anemia is usually diagnosed in infancy, if you or your child develops any of the following problems, see your doctor right away or seek emergency medical care: Unexplained episodes of severe pain, such as pain in the abdomen, chest, bones or joints.
Swelling in the hands or feet. Abdominal swelling, especially if the area is tender to the touch. People with sickle cell anemia have an increased risk of infection, and fever can be the first sign of an infection.
Pale skin or nail beds. Yellow tint to the skin or whites of the eyes. Signs or symptoms of stroke.This course is designed to provide an overview on epidemiology and the Internet for medical and health related students around the world based on the concept of Global Health Network University and Hypertext Comic Books.
In a nutshell. This page discusses the case for mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) for protection against malaria. Different forms of malaria are caused by different species of Plasmodium.
The most severe and deadly form is caused by P. falciparum, which is responsible for 90% of the global deaths from malaria, the majority of these in Africa, and mostly in young children. Mar 08, · Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body.
Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood. Home / Malaria Overview / Malaria Symptoms and Causes. Malaria Symptoms and Causes ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death.
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