Topic guide Unstructured interview This chapter covers two important aspects of qualitative studies—sampling selecting informative study participants and data collection gathering the right types and amount of information to address the research question.
Gathering those information is not always easy as the researcher has to go through huge pile of information be it primary or secondary. Thus, in such situation it would be practically very difficult for the researcher to perform the task.
Hence, methods like sampling is used when the universe is very broad and among many of its type purposive sampling method is one of the widely used method where the researcher has a very important role to play. The citation rule in the study has been applied as per Kathmandu School of Law Style Guide to academic writing.
Ongoing Kathmandu School of Law. Loyola University, Chicago School of Law. The method of selecting for study the portion of universe with a view to draw conclusions about the universe is called sampling. Sampling is used when,5 i. The researcher has to collect information from a wider area.
The researcher does not require cent percent accuracy.
The population is homogenous iv. It is not possible to adopt census method. Assumptions underlying in sampling6 a. Although there is complexity in socio-legal phenomena, there appears dominantal unity in diversity.
The assumption is that there is possibility of representative types in the whole population that makes sampling possible. If no two units were alike in any respect the sampling would have been impossible.
Purposive sampling was used in the selection of six students from one sectarian and one non-sectarian institutions of higher learning. A qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the key informants' verbatim accounts, gestures and other factors. Sampling Gordon Lynchi Introduction One of the aspects of research design often over-looked by researchers doing fieldwork in the study of religion is the issue of sampling. Introduction Qualitative research involves disciplined inquiry that examines people’s lives, experiences and behaviours, and the stories and meanings individuals ascribe to them. It can also investigate organisational functioning, relationships between individuals and groups, and social environments.
Possibility of representative selection: Purposive sampling qualitative research 2 of 12 The assumption is that it is possible to draw a representative sample. If a certain number of units are selected from a mass on purely random basis, every unit will have a chance of being included and the sample so selected will contain all types of units, so that it may be representative.
Absolute accuracy not essential: The assumption is that absolute accuracy is not essential. All the items in a sample should be independent of each other. Characteristics of a Good Sample Design: Sample design must result in a truly representative sample.
It must be such which results in a small sampling error. It must be viable in the context of funds available for the research study.
It must be such so that systematic bias can be controlled in a better way. Sample should be such that the results of the sample study can be applied, in general, for the universe with a reasonable level of confidence.
Process used in Sampling: Identify the population of interest8 A population is the group of people that you want to make assumptions about.
For example, if I want to know how much stress college students experience during finals. My population is every college student in the world because that's what I am interested in.
Of course, there's no way that I can feasibly study every college student in the world, so I move on to the next step. Specify a sampling frame9 7 C.
Page 3 of 12 A sampling frame is the group of people from which you will draw your sample. For example, I might decide that her sampling frame is every student at the university where I study.
Notice that a sampling frame is not as large as the population, but it's still a pretty big group of people. I still won't be able to study every single student at her university, but that's a good place from which to draw my sample.
Specify a sampling method10 There are basically two ways to choose a sample from a sampling frame: Random sampling, also known as probability sampling or chance sampling is when every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample.
It has following types: Stratified random Sampling d.
Cluster Sampling Non random sampling, also known as non-probability sampling is a method where sample is not based on the probability with which a unit can enter the sample but by other consideration such as common sense, experience, intention and expertise of the sampler.
Determine the sample size11 In general, larger samples are better, but they also require more time and effort to manage. If I end up having to go through 1,00 surveys, it will take her more time 9 Ibid.2 Ilker Etikan et al.: Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling.
include every subject because the population is almost finite. This is the rationale behind using sampling techniques like convenience sampling by most researchers . Purposive sampling was used in the selection of six students from one sectarian and one non-sectarian institutions of higher learning.
A qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the key informants' verbatim accounts, gestures and other factors.
Therefore, sampling is an essential step in the qualitative research process. As such, choice of sampling scheme is an important consideration that all qualitative researchers. Quantitative research emphasises on random sampling whereas qualitative research often use purposeful sampling, i.e.
you are interested in studying subjects from a sample that has characteristics relevant to the research questions. In sociology and statistics research, snowball sampling (or chain sampling, chain-referral sampling, referral sampling) is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.
Thus the sample group is said to grow like a rolling snowball. Purposive sampling is one technique often employed in qualitative investigation. With a purposive non-random sample the number of people interviewed is less important than the criteria.