A new Pew Research Center survey finds that majorities of Americans say men and women are basically different in the way they express their feelings, their physical abilities, their personal interests and their approach to parenting. But there is no public consensus on the origins of these differences.
While Project Leda clones look alike and share a genome manufactured by the Dyad Institute, which is helmed by the psychopathic Rachel Duncan, who is also played by Ms. But how can this be?
Why do the clones all seem so very different if genes determine everything from height and eye color to the development of illnesses such as schizophrenia from which Helena, once again portrayed by T.
The issue boils down to an age old debate in biology and psychology—nature versus nurture. In other words, how much of our lives are determined by DNA versus the environments in which we have developed?
Is the wide array of personality disorders, oops, I mean personalities exhibited by the clones a result of their divergent upbringings or the different synthetic sequences engineered into their genomes? Alternatively, is epigenetics responsible for these differences?
Epigenetics is an incredibly active field of research, and I suspect it might come up in season 3; perhaps epigenetics may deserve a post of its own. Francis Galton was Darwin's cousin and one of the earliest contributors to evolutionary theory; however, he was also the first eugenicist.
Does "Nature" or "Nurture" explain the personalities of the clones? This question would be a lot easier to address if the real world contained actual human clones to study.
Luckily, there is a type of natural human clone—identical twins. Without the benefit of modern analytical approaches and large data sets, Galton was forced to seek out anecdotal evidence i. The idyllic waterfront Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory was the real life counterpart of the fictive Cold River Institute; from toit was home to the Eugenics Record Office credit: Furthermore, he did not distinguish between fraternal and identical twins, as contemporary thought did not even realize this difference existed.
Because identical twins are genetically identical i.
|Pagination||Nurture or something in between?|
Galton implicitly assumed all twins were identical, though fraternal twins only share some genes. Leveraging this key genetic difference has made the study of twins a powerful method for testing the relative importance of nature and nurture.
Twin studies have had a huge impact on our understanding of what makes me me, you you, and presumably each of the clones of Orphan Black unlike her sisters. The first type compares fraternal and identical twins raised within the same households; the second looks at identical twins separated at birth.
Identical twins are identical because they originated as a single zygote, while fraternal result from independently, simultaneously fertilized eggs. Trlkly Identical, or monozygotic, twins form when a single sperm fertilizes a single egg to produce a single zygote, which then mysteriously splits into two embryos that eventually become two genetically identical humans.
In contrast, fraternal or dizygotic twins occur when two separate sperms fertilize two separate eggs. Because of this key difference, identical twins share a genome and are effectively natural clones, while fraternal twins are just siblings that share a birthday.
Because most twins, fraternal and identical, are raised within the same household, with the same rules, values, diets, school districts, pet parakeets, soccer coaches, and most perhaps importantly parents, any increased similarity among identical twins relative to fraternal twins must be due to genes; the more identical twins that exhibit a similar trait, the more likely it is a result of shared genetics.
In other words, comparing the degree of similarity between identical twins with that of fraternal twins allows geneticists to examine only nature because all of the effects of nurture cancel out.
It would have been impossible to separate Chang and Eng Bunker at birth in Conjoined twins like the Bunkers are genetically identical twins who are particularly attached to each other. The second type of twin study is in many ways the opposite of the first as it looks at the influence of nurture instead of nature.
This is much harder to accomplish because it considers only identical twins who were separated at birth—much like Sarah and Helena. As revealed in season 1, Helena and Sarah, are not just clones, but actual identical twins who shared the same womb. Conversely, we can probably attribute any characteristics they share like their unique ability among the Project Leda clones to become pregnant to nature, i.
However, it's tricky to compare Sarah and Helena to reality because modern adoption agencies desperately try to place twins into families together. The intentional separation of twins is considered improper. Ethical concerns have caused one such study, referred to in Identical Strangers: We must instead to restrict our attention to the more humane comparisons, some of which do not require twins at all.
Genomics weighs in on Nature vs Nurture Though we cannot yet clone humans, we can certainly do a lot more than look at similarities among twins to address the relative importance of nature and nurture.
For example, we can dig into the genomes of twins and everyone else. While twin studies are shockingly simple, our modern understanding of the influence of nature and nurture has taken a decidedly technological shift.
This remarkable feat requires powerful computers, cutting edge molecular biology, and piles of cash. These studies, called genome-wide association studiesstatistically link genetic markers from thousands of participant genomes to traits ranging from height and weight to alcohol dependency and IQ.
The product of these studies is two-fold. First, they identify the genes that cause diseases and account for visible differences among human beings. · Developmental and Learning Theories Gesell Freud Erikson Skinner Bandura Vygotsky Piaget Gardner –What are the similarities and differences in growth and development?
Nature vs Nurture •Is a child’s development due more to maturation or experience?benjaminpohle.com Childhood/Developmental and Learning. Nature, nurture, and expertise the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them (‘the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience’).
We apply this model and analysis to expert readers. The dichotomous data (expert vs non benjaminpohle.com A) person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups B) differences among cultural groups largely reflect genetic differences among racial groups C) gender differences in behavior result from differences in biology rather than from differences in life experiencebenjaminpohle.com Start studying Chapter 3: Nature vs.
Nurture. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Give examples of differences and similarities within the human family. Similarities between the child and the biological relatives give clues to the influence of heredity.
Similarities between the child and the benjaminpohle.com · Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Chapter 3 Psy Spring, 2 What is the Nature-Nurture Debate?
What accounts for our behavioral proclivities, talents, abilities, personality, pre-dispositions, Gender Similarities and Differences 6 Nature vs.
Nurture • benjaminpohle.com~willia55//Lecture03Springpdf. · Provided to YouTube by The Orchard Enterprises Nature's Similarities · Michael Whalen The Shape Of Life ℗ Spout Released on: Auto-generated by benjaminpohle.com://benjaminpohle.com?v=vOdySGWOirU.