The nuclear submarine is one of the major components responsible for achieving this status. The nuclear submarines have evolved over time in: The modern SSN is a stealth platform with 70 percent of the worlds surface under which to hide, its endurance determined not by fuel but by the amount of food that may be crammed into the hull, and its operational limitations determined more by the skill of the commander and crew than by external factors.
In this aircraft carriers battle, Japan lost the initiative in the Pacific. The battle plans In the battle of Midway, each side planned to attract the enemy's key naval force, its aircraft carriers, into a decisive battle with its own key naval force, and sink them.
Achieving that will dramatically reduce the potential and the threat of the enemy's Navy, and the winner's Navy will dominate the Pacific Ocean and will gain the initiative for future operations.
Six months after the attack at Pearl Harbor, this was the Japanese Navy's plan for the battle of Midway. This was also exactly what the American Navy planned.
There was one main difference between the two navies' battle plans. While the Japanese plan expected to attack Midway island and then wait for the American aircraft carriers to get there, the American commander knew the Japanese plan in advance, and he decided to already be near Midway when they arrive, and attack them earlier than they expected.
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This was his secret card against the outnumbering Japanese force. The critical intelligence In the same way that battles are the "highlights" of continuous military efforts, intelligence work is an endless continuous effort which sometimes produce critically important results.
This was the case in the battle of Midway. In the few weeks before the battle, the US Navy's Combat Intelligence Office, in charge of analyzing and deciphering Japanese naval radio communications, received indications hinting that the Japanese Navy is preparing for a major attack.
Deciphered Submarine essays messages referred to the attack target only by its code name, AF. There were several possible targets for such a major attack, and knowing which one was code named AF was critical.
Rochefort, head of the Combat Intelligence Office, thought that the gathered intelligence indicate that AF is Midway island, but he needed a proof.
In order to prove it, he called Midway via the underwater cable phone line, which the Japanese could not tap, and asked them to transmit a message that the water desalination facility in Midway is broken, a juicy piece of fake information for the Japanese intelligence, indicating that the American defenders at Midway are about to suffer a severe shortage of drinking water.
Soon after, Rochefort's staff deciphered a Japanese radio message saying that target AF is suffering a water shortage problem. This was the proof he needed, an extremely important piece of intelligence.
It was achieved by a simple trick, but only thanks to the endless prior work of American radio listeners and code breakers.
With this information at hand, Admiral Nimitz, the American commander, could concentrate his entire smaller force in the right place, at the right time, knowing that he knows the enemy's plans, a rare advantage for a commander. The participating forces Knowing what the enemy plans is not always enough, especially when it has a much larger force.
It was the Japanese Navy's greatest operation ever. They concentrated an Armada of warships under the command of Admiral Yamamoto, their best naval commander. The Japanese fleet was organized in five forces: Forward patrol - 16 submarines which advanced ahead of the main force.
Their task was to detect the American carriers as soon as possible, and possibly attack them. Aircraft carriers - 4 large aircraft carriers commanded by Admiral Nagumo, carrying aircraft and Japan's most experienced naval aviators. Their task was to attack Midway and then to attack the American carriers, once they arrive.
Invasion force - 12 cargo ships carrying Japanese Marines, escorted by 2 battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, and many destroyers. Their task was to bring the Japanese Marines to Midway and then provide them with very heavy artillery support.
Battleships - a mighty force of 7 battleships and a light aircraft carrier. Their task was to intercept the American carriers once they were located, and with their mighty guns sink anything not sunk by the Japanese aircraft.
Diversion force - 2 light aircraft carriers, 2 heavy cruisers, and 4 large cargo ships carrying Marines. Their task was to attack and invade the Aleutian islands near Alaska in parallel with the attack at Midway.
Against this mighty Armada, the American force in the battle of Midway included: Aircraft carriers - 3 aircraft carriers. Enterprise, Hornet, and the quickly repaired Yorktown, escorted by some heavy cruisers and destroyers, which were no match to the Japanese battleships in case of a naval gun battle.
Midway Island - with fighters and bombers based in it, it was like a stationary but unsinkable aircraft carrier. The Battle of Midway June 4th, On June 4th, before sunrise, Admiral Nagumo launched half of his carriers' aircraft to attack Midway, and kept the other half armed and ready in case American warships will be detected.
He didn't know that the American aircraft carriers were already nearby. The Japanese aircraft were detected by RADAR and fighters took off from Midway to engage them, but these were too few to prevent the attack, and Midway was bombed for 20 minutes.
There was significant damage, and 15 American fighters were shot down, but the runways at Midway were not disabled.
About 30 Japanese aircraft were either shot down or severely damaged. In response, the few American heavy bombers at Midway took off to attack the Japanese aircraft carriers.Submarines Essays: Over , Submarines Essays, Submarines Term Papers, Submarines Research Paper, Book Reports.
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