The cultural construction of gender and

Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection. His use, and that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarismand through artifice, become fully human. Casey wrote, "The very word culture meant 'place tilled' in Middle English, and the same word goes back to Latin colere, 'to inhabit, care for, till, worship' and cultus, 'A cult, especially a religious one. Thus a contrast between "culture" and " civilization " is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such.

The cultural construction of gender and

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking.

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This section outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross-cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

Symbolic roles From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world.

Jun 14,  · Best Answer: A cultural construction is a classification that is socially defined and influenced, like race or ethnicity, that classifies or describes an individual based on physical characteristics (like skin color), ancestry and cultural history (as with race), and can also socially group people into categories based on shared norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors (as with ethnicity).Status: Resolved. Turner has a culture that promotes an injury-free environment and provides the safest workplace possible for our employees, subcontractors, clients and others who enter our construction sites. Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policy-makers.

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations.

Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste. Situation definer At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In the Weiner Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defining both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers.

Even in societies less bound by long-standing traditions and customs, where one might expect to find a more individualistic, subjective approach to the choice of drinks, the social meanings of different beverages are clearly defined and clearly understood. A US survey Klein, examined perceptions of the situational appropriateness of various types of alcoholic drink, finding that wine, but not spirits or beer, is considered an appropriate accompaniment to a meal; wine and spirits, but not beer, are appropriate drinks for celebratory events, while beer is the most appropriate drink for informal, relaxation-oriented occasions.

In cultures with a more established heritage of traditional practices, perceptions of situational appropriateness may, however, involve more complex and subtle distinctions, and rules governing the uses of certain classes of drink are likely to be more rigidly observed. In France, for example, the aperitif is drunk before the meal, white wine is served before red, brandy and digestifs are served only at the end of the meal and so on Clarisse, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Among Hungarian Gypsies, equally strict rules apply to brandy: It would be regarded as highly inappropriate to serve or drink brandy outside these specific situational contexts Stewart, Status indicator Choice of beverage is also a significant indicator of social status.

In France, by contrast, where wine-drinking is commonplace and confers no special status, the young elite are turning to often imported beers McDonald, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Preference for high-status beverages may be an expression of aspirations, rather than a reflection of actual position in the social hierarchy.

There may also be a high degree of social differentiation within a single category of beverage. Purcell notes that in Ancient Rome, wine was not simply the drink of the elite: Wine was, and is today in many cultures, "a focus of eloquent choices".

Certain drinks, for example, have become symbols of national identity: Guinness for the Irish, tequila for Mexicans, whisky for Scots, ouzo for Greeks etc.

The cultural construction of gender and

In other words, the older peasant drinks cider; the younger person outside agriculture opts for beer. It is, however, too soon to tell whether their current habits will persist into maturity Gamella, During their traditional cactus-wine ceremonies, the Papago of Mexico frequently became "falling-down drunk"- indeed, it was common practice among the more dandyish young men of the tribe to paint the soles of their feet with red dye, so that when they fell down drunk the attractive colour would show.

Yet the drunken behaviour of the Papago on these occasions was invariably peaceful, harmonious and good-tempered. These "two types of drinking" co-existed until the white man, in his wisdom, attempted to curb the ill-effects of alcohol on the Papago by banning all drinking, including the still-peaceful wine ceremonies.

Prohibition failed, and the wine ceremonies eventually became indistinguishable, in terms of behaviour, from the secular whiskey-drinking. Need for further research As with many other areas covered in this review, information on the symbolic meanings of different types of alcoholic drink is scattered, disjointed and incomplete, usually buried in research focused on other issues.

Again, there has been no significant cross-cultural study of this phenomenon, beyond the occasional two-country comparison. In particular, more attention should be directed to the changes currently occurring in some European cultures.

When the British, for example, an ambivalent, episodic, beer-drinking culture, go to France, an integrated, wine-drinking culture, they exhibit a tendency to drink wine in beer quantities and display all of the behavioural excesses associated with their native drinking patterns, with the result that young British tourists "are now renowned in France and elsewhere in Europe for their drinking and drunkenness" McDonald, In Spain, by contrast, the young males appear more sensitive to alien cultural influences, and have adopted, along with beer-drinking, the anti-social behaviour patterns of their beer-drinking guests.

The need for further and more precise research on the symbolic functions of alcoholic beverages has been recognised even outside the culturally-minded field of anthropology.

The historian Thomas Brennan argues that: The problems with quantification illustrate the need for a greater awareness and investigation into the cultural aspects of alcohol.In Western societies, gender power is held by White, highly educated, middle-class, able-bodied heterosexual men whose gender represents hegemonic masculinity – the ideal to which other masculinities must interact with, conform to, and benjaminpohle.comnic .

Clark's text is scholarly without alienating the non-scholar. Using familiar authors and texts from the 19th and 20th Centuries, and a super-abundance of critical and popular responses to those texts, she illustrates the rise, fall, and reascension of children's literature as a respected pursuit.

Book of the Decade Award (), International Studies Association "War and Gender is a fascinating book about an important issue.

I thoroughly recommend it to everyone who has an interest in why we humans behave the way we do.". Feminists often complain about how we live in a “patriarchy”, and how women are “oppressed” and men privileged. Remember that when reading over this list and try to think of a single group in history that called themselves oppressed, but had so much dedicated to them.

Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policy-makers.

But understanding human sex difference would be frighteningly incomplete without considering gender, or “the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex” (Lavenda and Schultz ).

Perspectives:An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology