Resources The Big Picture An understanding of students and how they learn is essential in developing instruction. This involves an understanding of psychology and learning theory. In addition, instructional developers need to understand the difference between novice and expert learners and how students mature as information users. Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values.
If the person has an attribution of ability internal, no control as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior.
If the person has an external attribution, then nothing the person can do will help that individual in a learning situation i.
In this case, there is nothing to be done by the individual when learning problems occur. The implication is that if we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will lead to a change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more change in behavior.
According to the Webster's, cognitive dissonance is a psychological conflict resulting from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously. Weiner points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation i. Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life.
Thus, motivation is internal. C- Cognitive Developmental Theories Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget,According to Piaget, children are motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages: Sensorimotor stage Infancy, 0 to 2 years. In this period which has 6 stagesintelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols.
Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age memory.
Oct 10, · Wells, G. (). The zone of proximal development and its implications for learning and teaching. In Dialogic inquiry: Towards a sociocultural practice and theory of education (pp). Language teaching and learning has entered a ‘Post-Communicative’ phase which takes a more constructivist view of learning emphasising personal learning and discovery on the part of the learner, with more task-based, collaborative work between learners, and a more facilitating role for the teacher. Encourages Contact Between Students and benjaminpohle.comnt student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement.
Physical development mobility allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbollic language abilities are developed at the end of this stage. Pre-operational stage Toddler and Early Childhood, years. In this period which has two substagesintelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner.
Egocentric thinking predominates Concrete operational stage Elementary and early adolescence, years.
In this stage characterized by 7 types of conservation: Operational thinking develops mental actions that are reversible. In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought.
It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to motivate the child e. Zone of proximal development Lev Vygotsky, The Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between the learner's actual developmental level and the level of potential development; it is the gap between what we are trying to teach and the current state of development in that area.
As learners become more proficient, able to complete tasks on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn. Students' needs, goals and interests must be the starting point if motivation is to occur.
The main drive to do well comes from avoiding a negative outcome rather than approaching a positive one. In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals.
However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful. One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure more often associated with performance goals or achieve success more often associated with mastery goals.
In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred. In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success.Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development: Instructional Implications and Teachers' Professional Development Zone of proximal development (ZPD), Zone of actual development (ZAD Scaffolding, Intersubjectivity 1.
Vygotsky on Learning and Development Vygotsky is perhaps best known for his general genetic law of cultural . Vygotsky’s Vision: Reshaping the Practice of Special Education for the 21st Century. The three cornerstones of our approach to teaching and learning at Tallis are: Threshold Concepts, Powerful Knowledge and Habits of Mind.
The Wheel is intended to provide colleagues with an aide memoire for implementing Habits-related strategies in the classroom.
The Theory Of Social Learning Theory - The paper aims to critically evaluate and understand key concepts and theories in regard to moral development throughout life. Guy Bunce Developing Expertise in Teaching 1 Educational implications of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom.
For many years it has been generally agreed that collaborative work in classrooms has positive cognitive.
From a very early point in the history of philosophy, philosophers have been asking questions about human nature and about how we develop. These questions have led to a range of theories about human development and have extended from the philosophical sphere into the realms of psychology and educational research.