For our session this afternoon, you may be wondering: Dionne and David Brooks, for three or four years, have been saying we must do a session on Reinhold Niebuhr. We used to say we think you all should know about Niebuhr. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr.
Life and Influences a. Early Life and Influences Adam Smith was born in June,in Kirkcaldy, a port town on the eastern shore of Scotland; the exact date is unknown.
His father, the Comptroller and Collector of Customs, died while Smith's mother was pregnant but left the family with adequate resources for their financial well being. Young Adam was educated in a local parish district school.
Inat the age of thirteen he was sent to Glasgow College after which he attended Baliol College at Oxford University. His positive experiences at school in Kirkcaldy and at Glasgow, combined with his negative reaction to the professors at Oxford, would remain a strong influence on his philosophy.
In particular, Smith held his teacher Francis Hutcheson in high esteem. One of the early leaders of the philosophical movement now called the Scottish Enlightenment, Hutcheson was a proponent of moral sense theory, the position that human beings make moral judgments using their sentiments rather than their "rational" capacities.
According to Hutcheson, a sense of unity among human beings allows for the possibility of other-oriented actions even though individuals are often motivated by self-interest.
The moral sense, which is a form of benevolence, elicits a feeling of approval in those witnessing moral acts. Hutcheson opposed ethical egoism, the notion that individuals ought to be motivated by their own interests ultimately, even when they cooperate with others on a common project.
The term "moral sense" was first coined by Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesburywhose work Smith read and who became a focal point in the Scots' discussion, although he himself was not Scottish.
Although Shaftesbury did not offer a formal moral sense theory as Hutcheson did, he describes personal moral deliberation as a "soliloquy," a process of self-division and self-examination similar in form to Hamlet's remarks on suicide. This model of moral reasoning plays an important role in Smith's books.
The Scottish Enlightenment philosophers, or the literati, as they called themselves, were a close-knit group who socialized together and who read, critiqued, and debated each other's work. They met regularly in social clubs often at pubs to discuss politics and philosophy. Shortly after graduating from Oxford, Smith presented public lectures on moral philosophy in Edinburgh, and then, with the assistance of the literati, he secured his first position as the Chair of Logic at Glasgow University.
His closest friendship in the group—and probably his most important non-familial relationship throughout his life—was with David Humean older philosopher whose work Smith was chastised for reading while at Oxford.
Hume was believed to be an atheist, and his work brought into question some of the core beliefs in moral philosophy. In particular, and even more so than Hutcheson, Hume's own version of moral sense theory challenged the assumption that reason was the key human faculty in moral behavior. He famously asserted that reason is and ought to be slave to the passions, which means that even if the intellect can inform individuals as to what is morally correct, agents will only act if their sentiments incline them to do so.
An old proverb tells us that you can lead a horse to water but that you can't make it drink.
Hume analogously argues that while you might be able to teach people what it means to be moral, only their passions, not their rational capacities, can actually inspire them to be ethical.
This position has roots in Aristotle 's distinction between moral and intellectual virtue. Smith, while never explicitly arguing for Hume's position, nonetheless seems to assume much of it. And while he does not offer a strict moral sense theory, he does adopt Hume's assertion that moral behavior is, at core, the human capacity of sympathy, the faculty that, in Hume's account, allows us to approve of others' characters, to "forget our own interest in our judgments," and to consider those whom "we meet with in society and conversation" who "are not placed in the same situation, and have not the same interest with ourselves" Hume:Meaning and the Problem of Universals, A Kant-Friesian Approach.
One of the most durable and intractable issues in the history of philosophy has been the problem of benjaminpohle.comy related to this, and a major subject of debate in 20th century philosophy, has been the problem of the nature of the meaning.. The problem of universals .
The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong.
The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.
Albert Camus (—) Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate.
Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, . To Be or Not To Be: A Discussion on Egoism Egoism can either be descriptive or normative.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines Psychological egoism, the most famous descriptive position, that each person has one but ultimate aim — his own welfare.
FREE COURSE THE WORLD, THE JEWS AND THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN SURVIVAL Anti-Semitism, division, separation, violent conflicts and a general breakdown of the institutions of human society.
Summary of Events: This case involves students who have applied to MBA programs, who stumbled across an opportunity to learn of their results early, information that had been obtained via message board.